Possible Mechanisms for The Effects of Calcium
Deficiency on Male Infertility
Calcium (Ca) is a significant element that acts as an intracellular second messenger. It is necessary for many physi- ological processes in spermatozoa including spermatogenesis, sperm motility, capacitation, acrosome reaction and fertilization. Although influences of Ca deficiency on sperm function and male infertility have been widely studied, mechanisms for these abnormalities are not well considered. Poor sperm motility, impairment of chemotaxis, capaci- tation, acrosome reaction and steroidogenesis are the major mechanisms by which Ca deficiency induces male infertil- ity. Therefore, an optimal seminal Ca concentration is required to strengthen sperm function and all steps leading to successful fertilization. Furthermore, identification of these mechanisms provides valuable information regarding the mechanisms of Ca deficiency on male reproductive system and the way for developing a better clinical approach. In this review, we aim to discuss the proposed cellular and molecular mechanisms of Ca deficiency on male reproductive system, sperm function and male fertility. Also we will discuss the valuable information currently available for the roles of Ca in male reproduction.