Detection of Y Chromosome Microdeletions and Hormonal Profile
Analysis of Infertile Men undergoing Assisted Reproductive
Y chromosome deletions (YCDs) in azoospermia factor (AZF) region are associated with ab- normal spermatogenesis and may lead to azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia. Assisted reproductive tech- nologies (ART) by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and testicular sperm extraction (TESE) are com- monly required for infertility management of patients carrying YCDs. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of YCDs, to find the most frequent variant in infertile men candidate for ART and to compare YCD distribution with a control fertile group. The semen parameters, hormonal profiles and ART outcomes of the infertile group were studied.
Materials and Methods
This case-control study consisted of 97 oligozoospermic or non-obstructive azoospermic (NOA) infertile men, who had undergone ART, as the case group and 100 fertile men as the control group. DNA samples were extracted from blood samples taken from all 197 participants and YCDs were identified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of eight known sequence-tagged sites. The chi-square test was used to compare the mean values of hormone and sperm parameters between the two groups. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
No YCD was detected in the control group. However, 20 out of 97 (20.6%) infertile men had a YCD. AZFc, AZFbc and AZFabc deletions were detected in 15 (75%), four (20%) and one (5%) YCD-positive patients. No fer- tilization or clinical pregnancy was seen following ICSI in this sub-group with YCD. The mean level of FSH was significantly higher in the group with YCD (28.45 ± 22.2 vs. 4.8 ± 3.17 and 10.83 ± 7.23 in YCD-negative patients with and without clinical pregnancy respectively).
YCD is frequent among NOA men and YCD screening before ART and patient counseling is thus strongly recommended.