Past Issue

Volume 12, Number 1, Apr-Jun 2018, Pages: 27-30

Modeling In Vitro Fertilization Data Considering Multiple Outcomes Observed among Iranian Infertile Women

Azadeh Ghaheri, M.Sc, 1, Aliakbar Rasekhi, Ph.D, 1, Reza Omani Samani, M.D, 2, Ebrahim Hajizadeh, Ph.D, 1, *,
Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Department of Epidemiology and Reproductive Health, Reproductive Epidemiology Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran
*Corresponding Address: P.O. Box: 14115-331 Department of Biostatistics Faculty of Medical Sciences Tarbiat Modares University Jalal-e Al Ahmad Highway Tehran Iran



Women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles should successfully go through multiple points during the procedure (i.e., implantation, clinical pregnancy, no spontaneous abortion and delivery) to achieve live births. In this study, data from multiple cycles and multiple points during the IVF cycle are collected for each individual to model the effects of factors associated with success at different stages of IVF cycles in Iranian infertile women.

Materials and Methods

This historical cohort study includes 996 assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles of 511 infertile women. Covariates considered in this study were women’s age, type of cycle (fresh or frozen embryo transfer), number of embryos transferred and having polycystic ovarian syndrome during IVF cycles. Generalized estimating equations were used for calculation of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of success at different stages during IVF cycles. Cluster-weighted generalized estimating equations (CWGEE) was also fitted to handle informative cluster size.


After adjusting for potential confounders, it was seen that receiving frozen embryo transfer was associated with higher odds of success compared to receiving fresh embryo transfer (adj OR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.66-3.07); however, cycles with fresh embryo transfer exhibited better results in clinical pregnancy compared to those receiving frozen embryo. Being in the age category of 38 to 40 was associated with lower odds of success compared to the reference category (<35) in CWGEE model (adj OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.45-1.00). The number of embryos transferred was positively associated with the odds of success in CWGEE (adj OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.03-1.42) as well as the GEE model.


Receiving frozen embryo was positively associated with odds of success compared to cycles with fresh embryo. The number of embryos transferred and women’s age were significantly associated with odds of success.