Accuracy of Two-Dimensional Transvaginal Sonography and
Office Hysteroscopy for Detection of Uterine Abnormalities
in Patients with Repeated Implantation Failures or
Recurrent Pregnancy Loss
We sought to compare diagnostic values of two-dimensional transvaginal sonography (2D TVS) and office hysteroscopy (OH) for evaluation of endometrial pathologies in cases with repeated implantation failure (RIF) or recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL).
Materials and Methods
This prospective study was performed at Royan Institute from December 2013 to January 2015. TVS was performed before hysteroscopy as part of the routine diagnostic work-up in 789 patients with RIF or RPL. Uterine biopsy was performed in cases with abnormal diagnosis in TVS and/or hysteroscopy. We compared the diagnostic accuracy values of TVS in detection of uterine abnormalities with OH by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.
TVS examination detected 545 (69%) normal cases and 244 (31%) pathologic cases, which included 84 (10.6%) endometrial polyps, 15 (1.6%) uterine fibroids, 10 (1.3%) Asherman’s syndrome, 9 (1.1%) endometrial hy- pertrophy, and 126 (15.9%) septate and arcuate uterus. TVS and OH concurred in 163 pathologic cases, although TVS did not detect some pathology cases (n=120). OH had 94% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 62% positive predictive value (PPV), and 99% negative predictive value (NPV) for detection of endometrial polyps. In the diagnosis of myoma, sen- sitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 100%. TVS had a sensitivity of 50% and specificity of 98% for the diagnosis of myoma. For polyps, TVS had a sensitivity of 54% and specificity of 80%. Area under the ROC curve (AUROC) was 70.69% for the accuracy of TVS compared to OH.
TVS had high specificity and low sensitivity for detection of uterine pathologies in patients with RIF or RPL compared with OH. OH should be considered as a workup method prior to treatment in patients with normal TVS findings.