Bone in The Endometrium: A Review
To provide a comprehensive review of the published literature of patients with endo- metrial bone or osseous fragments with a view to critically examine the antecedent clinical presentation, investigations and prognosis after treatment. This systematic review of the literature includes full text articles of published case re- ports and cases series from the following computerized databases: PubMed, Ovid, and Medline between 1928 and 2013. We reviewed a total of 293 patients in 155 case reports and case series. The mean ± SD age at presentation was 32.7 ± 8.9. Approximately 88% of patients had at least one prior surgical uterine evacuation relating to pregnancy termina- tion or loss at a median gestational age of 14 weeks (range of 4-41 weeks). The most common presenting symptom was infertility (56.2%). One hundred twenty- four (66.0%) of the 188 patients attempting pregnancy after treatment achieved pregnancy prior to article publication and the majority (82.3%) were spontane- ous. Spontaneous miscarriage rate remains high (43%); however, most pregnancies ended in live-birth (55%). Bone fragments in the endometrium are most commonly found after pregnancy termina- tion, present with infertility and/or irregular menses, and upon removal, patients rapidly conceive spontaneously.