Hysterosalpingography in The Assessment of Congenital
Cervical abnormalities may be congenital or acquired. Congenital anomalies of the cervix are rarely isolated, and more commonly accompany other uterine anomalies. Various imaging tools have been used in the assessment of Müllerian duct anomalies (MDAs). Currently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice for definitive diagnosis and classification of these MDAs. Hysterosalpingography is a basic tool for evaluation of infertility and allows us to detect a spectrum of anatomical malformations of the utero-cervix in the setting of MDAs. It provides good outlines of the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes, as well as the cervical canal and isthmus. However, hysterosalpingograms (HSG) cannot be performed in patients with isolated congenital maldevelopment (agenesis/disgenesis) of the cervix. This part of pictorial review illustrates the various radiographic appearances of congenital malformations of the utero-cervix with a brief overview of the embryologic features. Accurate diagnosis of such cases is considered essential for optimal treatment and categorization of each anomaly.