Past Issue

Volume 9, Number 4, Jan-Mar 2016, Pages: 424-435

Epidemiology of Uterine Myomas: A Review

Radmila Sparic, M.D, 1, *, Ljiljana Mirkovic, Ph.D, 1, 2, Antonio Malvasi, M.D, 3, 4, Andrea Tinelli, Ph.D, 4, 5,
Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Santa Maria Hospital, Bari, Italy
International Translational Medicine and Biomodelling Research Group Department of Applied Mathematics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Moscow Region, Russia
Division of Experimental Endoscopic Surgery, Imaging, Technology and Minimally Invasive Therapy, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Vito Fazzi Hospital, Lecce, Italy
* Corresponding Address: Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinical Center of Serbia Dr. Koste Todorovića 26 11000 Belgrade Serbia


Myomas are the most common benign tumors of the genital organs in women of childbearing age, causing significant morbidity and impairing their quality of life. In our investigation, we have reviewed the epidemiological data related to the development of myomas in order to homogenize the current data. Therefore, a MEDLINE and PubMed search, for the years 1990-2013, was conducted using a combination of keywords, such as "myoma," "leiomyoma," "fibroids," "myomectomy," "lifestyle," "cigarette," "alcohol," "vitamins," "diet," and "hysterectomy". Randomized controlled studies were selected based upon the authors’ estimation. Peer-reviewed articles examining myomas were sorted by their relevance and included in this research. Additional articles were also identified from the references of the retrieved papers and included according to authors’ estimation.

Many epidemiologic factors are linked to the development of myomas; however, many are not yet fully understood. These factors include age, race, heritage, reproductive factors, sex hormones, obesity, lifestyle (diet, caffeine and alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity and stress), environmental and other influences, such as hypertension and infection. Some of the epidemiological data is conflicting. Thus, more research is needed to understand all the risk factors that contribute to myoma formation and how they exactly influence their onset and growth.