Oxidative Stress during Ovarian Torsion in Pediatric
and Adolescent Patients: Changing The
Perspective of The Disease
Among the different causes of gynecological acute pelvic pain, ovarian torsion represents a surgical emergency. It is a rare case in the pediatric/adolescent aged group that must be included in the differential diagnosis of any girl with abdominal pain or pelvic/abdominal mass. Current recommendations suggest that laparoscopic detorsion should be performed in order to preserve the integrity of the ovaries and fertility, although oophoropexy may be considered in case of severe necrosis. Nevertheless, maintaining the circulation of the ovary after detorsion deteriorates the tissue injury and leads to a pathologic process called ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, which is characterized by oxidative stress. During the detorsion process, an excess amount of molecular oxygen is supplied to the tissues, and reactive species of oxygen (ROS) such as superoxide radical (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical (OH•), as well as reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are produced in excess. ROS, RNS and their toxic products cause DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in the cellular and mitochondrial membranes, leading to cell death. In spite of attention on this topic, currently there is no shared and clear evidence about the use of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents to prevent I/R damage after laparoscopic ovarian detorsion. Considering this element, future research should aim to develop shared protocols for the clinical use (route of application, dosage and time of application) of antioxidants after laparoscopic management of this condition.