Endometriosis is defined as overgrowth of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. Diet may play a role in the aetiology of endometriosis through effects on oxidative stress, prostaglandin metabolism, and steroid hormone levels. The objective of this paper is to assess the role of diet on risk of endometriosis among infertile Iranian women.
Materials and methods
In this case control study in Royan Institute, Iran between 2014 and 2015. There were 150 infertile women with endometriosis (cases) and 150 infertile women without endometriosis (controls) who were evaluated by laparoscopy. A questionnaire was completed for each patient. Women were also asked about their frequency of consumption per week of portions of selected dietary items in the Iranian diet in the year before interview.
Women with endometriosis, a significant increase in risk emerged for low intake of milk (OR = 4.39), and cheese (OR = 3.06), green vegetables (OR = 14.52), fresh fruit (OR = 2.10), grain (OR = 2.65), red meat (OR = 2.61). Consumption of fish, egg, carrots, and green tea were not significantly related to endometriosis. In the logistic regression model, age (P=0.01), level of education (P=0.01), BMI (P=0.03), green vegetable (P=0.03), grain (P=0.001), and cheese (P<0.001) were the main variables that significantly associated with en dometriosis. The AUCs for these models were 0.79 (95% CI 0.74-0.84), showing a good predictive performance for the fitted logistic regression model.
The present study suggests that specific types of dietary components are associated with endometriosis risk.