Fetal growth restriction is the second leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The incidence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is estimated to be approximately 5 percent in the general obstetric population. Abnormal uterine artery suggest a maternal cause for the growth restriction where as normal uterine artery Doppler studies suggest that a fetal cause. Use of umbilical artery Doppler to monitor high-risk fetuses reduces perinatal morbidity and mortality. A variety of indices of umbilical arterial Doppler waveform, such as resistance index, systolic/diastolic ratio, pulsatility index and diastolic average ratio, is used for predicting perinatal outcome. Resistance index had the best ability to predict abnormal outcomes. When an anomaly scan and umbilical artery Doppler are normal, the small fetus is likely to be a ‘normal small fetus. In Doppler study of pregnancy we look for fetal hypoxia, acidosis , asphyxia and anemia as well.
Materials and methods