Accurate prevalence figures are not available, but it has been estimated that 1-2% of women have recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), defined as three or more consecutive losses of intrauterine pregnancy in the first trimester. Half of whom have no identifiable cause. Recent studies of early pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, pregnancy complications such a hydatidiform mole suggests that these are the results of a common pathophysiology. Abnormal placentation in the first trimesters leads to oxidative stress and resultant endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the emergence of complications of pregnancy such as abortion. There are some markers for prediction of pregnancy outcome in cases of recurrent pregnancy loss, such as: serum βHCG, progesterone, CA125 Levels, soluble fmslike tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1), PIGF (placental growth factor), pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), Inhibin A, fetal fibronectin, platelet distribution width, platelet count, plateletcrit (pct), white blood cell (WBC) count, red cell distribution width (RDW), lymphocyte count, neutrophil count, neutrophils to lymphocyte (N/L) ratio and presence of the protein fractions of low-or mid-weight. Further larger studies are required to investigate the predictive efficacy of these morkers.
Materials and methods