Past Issue

Volume 8, Number 1, Apr-Jun 2014, Pages: 1-12

Premature Ovarian Failure: A Critical Condition in The Reproductive Potential with Various Genetic Causes


Farkhondeh Pouresmaeili, Ph.D, 1, 2, *, Zahra Fazeli, M.Sc, 1,
Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center (IRHRC), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
* Corresponding Address: P.O. Box: 1985-717443 Department of Medical Genetics Faculty of Medicine Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Tehran Iran Email: pouresfar@gmail.com

Abstract

Premature ovarian failure (POF) is identified as a heterogeneous disorder leading to amenorrhea and ovarian failure before the age of 40 years. The first known symptom of the disease is having irregular menstrual periods. The phenotype appearance of POF depends significantly on the variations in hormones. Low levels of gonadal hormones (estrogens and inhibins) and increased level of gonadotropins [luteinizing hormone (LH) and Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)] (hypergonadotropic amenorrhea) are well documented as causes of POF. There is an association between the failure of germ cell development and complete ovarian failure, and consistently decreased number of germ cells is more likely associated with partial ovarian failure resulting in secondary amenorrhea. A literature review on recent findings about POF and its association with genomic alterations in terms of genes and chromosomes. POF is a complex heterogeneous disorder. Some of POF cases are carriers of a single gene mutation inherited in an autosomal or X-linked manner while a number of patients suffer from a chromosome abnormality like Turner syndrome in mosaic form and manifest secondary amenorrhea associated with ovarian dysgenesis. Among many of the known involved genes in POF development, several are prove to be positively associated to the disease development in different populations. While there is a promising association between X chromosome anomalies and specific gene mutations with POF, genome-wide analysis could prove a powerful tool for identifying the most important candidate genes that influence POF manifestation.